High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Vehicles and other mobile machinery used for transport (over land, sea, air, rail) and for other uses (agricultural, mobile power generation, etc) contribute heavily to climate change and pollution, so zero emission engines are an area of active research. These technologies almost in all cases include an electric engine powered by an energy source compact enough to be installed in the vehicle. These sources include hydrogen fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and flywheel energy storage devices. In some cases, such as compressed air engines, the engine may be mechanical rather than electrical. This mechanical engine is then powered by a passive energy source like compressed air, or a combustible non-polluting gas like hydrogen. The above engines can be used in all vehicles, from cars to boats to propeller airplanes. For boats, energy sources such as nuclear power and solar panels can also be a viable option, in addition to traditional sails and turbosails.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. A Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle is a vehicle that has zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system, has a 15 year (or at least 150,000 mile) warranty and meets SULEV tailpipe emission standards.PZEVs have their own administrative category within the state of California for low emission vehicles.This vehicle category was created as part of a bargain with the California Air Resources Board (CARB), so that the automobile manufacturers could postpone producing mandated zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), which will require the production of electric vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
The important motivations for exploring alternative fuel resources are energy security and air pollution, problems that are collectively calling into question the fundamental sustainability of the current energy system.Hydrogen-fuelled engines with near-zero emissions are a potential near-term option and a bridge to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.With emission legislations getting more stringent,research studies have definitely established the advantages of extremely clean burning characteristics of hydrogen as a dual fuel in engines.But that said,the premium of using hydrogen as a green energy carrier needs to be augmented with studies on its potential to satisfy conventional engine combustion characteristics for ready deployment.In this present study, the performance and combustion analysis were carried out on an existing direct injection diesel engine at various load steppings using hydrogen inducted at different injection timings and injection durations.The findings of the study cater to its audience interested to employ such uses in practical diesel engines and also to those chartering a course of pursuance in the context of reducing emission from existing combustion engines.
The necessity to reduce green house gas emission and growing difficulties in fossil fuel recovery raise great challenges for the scientific community to develop efficient, low cost alternative energy sources. Hydrogen is sought by many as a way to store and transport energy produced from renewable sources. As a fuel hydrogen produces only water on burning and is not toxic in any way. Photolytic processes are very attractive for hydrogen production due to the zero greenhouse gas emissions, however, they can be commercially used only if limitations related to low efficiency and poor stability can be resolved. In this work we describe a novel cell structure for stable photo electrochemical water splitting that can be prepared by electrodeposition from ionic liquids at high temperature. The deposition methods developed here provide low cost and efficient way to synthesise high quality semiconductors and their alloys. The concept presented in this work can potentially be applied to a variety of efficient, yet unstable systems to achieve efficient and long lasting water splitting.
This book provides an up-to-date review of the status and prospects of different options in energy conversion and storage technologies, as seen by a panel of world leading experts. It offers a platform for readers engaged in planning and undertaking new energy solutions or retrofitting and redesigning the existing installations to confront and to compare the pros and cons of various novel technology options. Contributing articles cover new clean and zero-emission coal technologies, solar, wind, nuclear, fuel cells, hydrogen and hybrid technologies, accompanied by treatises on the challenge of increasing global energy needs and consumption, issues of sustainability, and on specific ideas for efficient production and use of energy based on modern rationing technologies. The volume also offers views of feasibility of the implementation of advanced technologies especially in countries other than the few most developed industrial nations and highly populous countries, which all may have different priorities. Further, it brings together several regional surveys of needs, resources and priorities, as well as specific initiatives towards meeting future energy objectives, pursued in several countries in South-Eastern Europe. The book targets engineers and planners in the energy sector, employees in energy utility companies, and various levels of governmental organizations and offices. It is also meant to serve as a graduate-level textbook to meet the growing demand for new courses in alternative, renewable and sustainable energy technologies at technical and general universities.
Hydrogen is believed to be the energy source of the future, enabling zero-emission and efficient production of power. This comprehensive publication presents a broad spectrum of various chemical aspects of hydrogen storage. The authors also address global climate change issues, carbon dioxide sequestration problems and CO2-based hydrogen storage.
This book describes the challenges and solutions the energy sector faces by shifting towards a hydrogen based fuel economy. The most current and up-to-date efforts of countries and leaders in the automotive sector are reviewed as they strive to develop technology and find solutions to production, storage, and distribution challenges. Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen and is often used with electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. This book offers unique solutions to integrating renewable sources of energy like wind or solar power into the production of hydrogen fuel, making it a cost effective, efficient and truly renewable alternative fuel.
Near zero emission hydrogen-based processes, especially with respect to greenhouse gas emission, can be achieved if hydrogen originates from renewable feedstock, such as bio-ethanol. Indeed, bio-ethanol is almost neutral from the standpoint of global warming because its production through agriculture consumes just slightly less CO2 than is produced during combustion. The present book reports findings on hydrogen production from ethanol by non-catalytic supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO).
The share market of hydrogen is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production by using metal catalyst will need to increase with this growing market. However, some carbon is deposited on the catalyst but there was a window of operation where the deposited carbon did not have too great an effect on hydrogen production under different conditions. Carbon formation deactivates the catalyst, resulting in short life cycles. In order to improve process performance, in particular minimizing catalyst deactivation caused by carbon formation and maximizing the yield of hydrogen product, the addition of the promoters to catalyst is the most familiar method. The book is focused on the art of the promoters application on metal catalyst for hydrogen production from the methane steam reforming process at high pressure and the steam iron process over promoted Fe-oxide based catalyst.