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Modeling and Control of Raw Emissions of a Dies...
48,80 € *
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A real-time capable in-cylinder pressure based diesel engine-out PM estimator has been developed. Using the ECU signals and in-cylinder pressure data new variables have been derived and used as inputs for an exponential zero dimensional modeling approach. This approach required little computational effort making the ECU capable of cycle based PM emissions calculation, significantly faster than in real-time. Along with the PM estimator an accurate NOx emissions model has been utilized in a MIMO feedback controller motivated by the gain scheduling concept. Two types of experimental passenger car DI diesel engines, equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors have been used. Measurements have been taken during steady state and transient operation on engine test benches for development work. Implementation of the emission models and the controller has been done on a test vehicle and tests were carried out on the test track and vehicle test bench. Good correlation between the estimated and measured PM has been achieved for various experiments, not only at steady state operation but also for transient states. Particularly, the model delivers good qualitative results in general, as well as good quantitative results in some regions. PM emission gradients between operating points are represented successfully. The raw emissions controller – despite further need for optimization – has been successful in controlling PM and NOx emissions simultaneously over EGR and pilot injection quantity. Gain scheduling has eliminated the need for an inverse combustion model. EGR and injector actuators were manipulated in a cascaded controller structure where the designed PI controllers altered reference values of the actual EGR and pilot injection quantity controllers that were already present in the system.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 29.09.2020
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Sustainable Energy Technologies, w. CD-ROM
155,05 € *
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This book provides an up-to-date review of the status and prospects of different options in energy conversion and storage technologies, as seen by a panel of world leading experts. It offers a platform for readers engaged in planning and undertaking new energy solutions or retrofitting and redesigning the existing installations to confront and to compare the pros and cons of various novel technology options. Contributing articles cover new clean and zero-emission coal technologies, solar, wind, nuclear, fuel cells, hydrogen and hybrid technologies, accompanied by treatises on the challenge of increasing global energy needs and consumption, issues of sustainability, and on specific ideas for efficient production and use of energy based on modern rationing technologies. The volume also offers views of feasibility of the implementation of advanced technologies especially in countries other than the few most developed industrial nations and highly populous countries, which all may have different priorities. Further, it brings together several regional surveys of needs, resources and priorities, as well as specific initiatives towards meeting future energy objectives, pursued in several countries in South-Eastern Europe. The book targets engineers and planners in the energy sector, employees in energy utility companies, and various levels of governmental organizations and offices. It is also meant to serve as a graduate-level textbook to meet the growing demand for new courses in alternative, renewable and sustainable energy technologies at technical and general universities.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 29.09.2020
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Catalysis to produce hydrogen
130,00 CHF *
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The share market of hydrogen is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production by using metal catalyst will need to increase with this growing market. However, some carbon is deposited on the catalyst but there was a window of operation where the deposited carbon did not have too great an effect on hydrogen production under different conditions. Carbon formation deactivates the catalyst, resulting in short life cycles. In order to improve process performance, in particular minimizing catalyst deactivation caused by carbon formation and maximizing the yield of hydrogen product, the addition of the promoters to catalyst is the most familiar method. The book is focused on the art of the promoters application on metal catalyst for hydrogen production from the methane steam reforming process at high pressure and the steam iron process over promoted Fe-oxide based catalyst.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 29.09.2020
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Contemporary Topics in Analytical and Clinical ...
168,00 CHF *
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1. Polychromatic Analysis Using the Technicon STAC¿ Analyzer.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The STAC Analyzer.- 2.1. Diluter/Dispenser Module.- 2.2. Analytical Module.- 2.3. Electronics Module.- 3. General Theory.- 4. Selection of Primary and Secondary Wavelengths.- 5. Classification of Polychromatic Analysis.- 5.1. Correction for Nonreactive (Static or Time Invariant Interferences).- 5.2. Correction for Reactive (Kinetic) Interferences.- 5.3. Correction for a Combination of Both Reactive and Nonreactive Interferences.- 5.4. Detection of Substrate Depletion.- 6. STAC Assays.- 7. Examples of Polychromatic Analysis.- 7.1. Calcium.- 7.2. Total Bilirubin.- 7.3. Uric Acid.- 7.4. Triglycerides.- 7.5. AST.- 8. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Introduction to Multiple-Wavelength Spectrophotometric Measurements in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Definitions.- 3. Applications in Analytical Chemistry.- 4. Applications in Clinical Chemistry.- 5. Epilogue.- References.- 3. Bichromatic Analysis: The Design and Function of the ABA-100.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Design Principles.- 3. Performance of Individual Instrument Functions.- 3.1. Photometric Uncertainty and Linearity.- 3.2. Control of Reaction Temperature.- 3.3. Sample Evaporation.- 3.4. Volume Measurement.- 3.5. Performance Characteristics Unique to Bichromatic Measurements.- 4. Automation of a Specific Method with the ABA.- 5. Quality Control.- 6. Special Applications.- 7. Epilogue.- References.- 4. Bichromatic Analysis as Performed in the Du Pont Automatic Clinical Analyzer (¿aca¿).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Analytical Test Pack.- 2.1. Header.- 2.2. Pack Envelope.- 3. Instrument.- 3.1. Sample Handling/Pack Filling.- 3.2. Timing, Temperature, Reagent Addition/Mixing, and Incubation.- 4. Measurement System.- 4.1. Measurement Techniques.- 4.2. Electro-Optical System Description.- 4.3. Zero Absorbance Requirement.- 4.4. Output Result Performance and Calibration.- 5. Measurement Principles.- 5.1. Implementation.- 5.2. Representative Examples.- 5.3. Reaction Time Courses.- 5.4. Chromophore Spectra.- 5.5. Performance.- 6. Advantages.- 6.1. Disadvantages.- 6.2. Future Applications.- References.- 5. The Analysis of Matrix Formatted Multicomponent Data.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Data Reduction Strategies in Analytical Chemistry.- 1.2. Description of MFMDT.- 2. Linear Algebra Review.- 2.1. Vectors and Matrices.- 2.2. Arithmetic of Matrices.- 2.3. Matrix Solution of a System of Linear Equations.- 2.4. Basis and Rank.- 2.5. Identity and Inverse Matrices.- 2.6. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.- 2.7. Glossary.- 3. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Qualitative Analysis of the Fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (FEEM).- 3.1. Properties of Fluorescence Emission.- 3.2. Principles of Qualitative Analysis of the FEEM by MFMDT.- 3.3. Qualitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 3.4. Qualitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 4. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Quantitative Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.1. Theory of Least Squares Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.2. Theory of Linear Programming Analyses (Simplex Method) of the FEEM.- 4.3. Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 4.4. Quantitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 5. Summary and Conclusion.- 5.1. Effectiveness of MFMDT for Analysis of Multicomponent Fluorescence Data.- 5.2. Expansion and Future Applications of MFMDT.- 6. Appendices.- 6.1. Fortran Subroutines for Qualitative Analysis.- 6.2. Fortran Subroutines for Quantitative Analysis.- References.- 6. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation of Convolved Excitation and Multiple Emission Response Functions.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Luminescence Processes.- 1.2. Modern Instrumentation.- 1.3. Algorithms for Nonlinear Data Analysis.- 2. Instrumentation and Analytical Parameters.- 2.1. Time Correlated Single-Photon Method.- 2.2. Theory.- 2.3. Pile-Up.- 2.4. Time-to-Amplitude Converter.- 2.5. Excitation Source.- 2.6. Optics.- 2.7. Photomultiplier Tube.- 2.8. Start and Stop Lines.- 2.9. Timing Filter Amplifier (TFA).- 2.10. Analytical Considerations¿ Intensity versus Concentration.- 2.11. Scattered Excitation Radiation.- 2.12. Analytical Wavelength and Bandpass Selection.- 2.13. Linearity versus Concentration.- 3. Data Handling.- 3.1. Theory and

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 29.09.2020
Zum Angebot
Contemporary Topics in Analytical and Clinical ...
89,99 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

1. Polychromatic Analysis Using the Technicon STAC¿ Analyzer.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The STAC Analyzer.- 2.1. Diluter/Dispenser Module.- 2.2. Analytical Module.- 2.3. Electronics Module.- 3. General Theory.- 4. Selection of Primary and Secondary Wavelengths.- 5. Classification of Polychromatic Analysis.- 5.1. Correction for Nonreactive (Static or Time Invariant Interferences).- 5.2. Correction for Reactive (Kinetic) Interferences.- 5.3. Correction for a Combination of Both Reactive and Nonreactive Interferences.- 5.4. Detection of Substrate Depletion.- 6. STAC Assays.- 7. Examples of Polychromatic Analysis.- 7.1. Calcium.- 7.2. Total Bilirubin.- 7.3. Uric Acid.- 7.4. Triglycerides.- 7.5. AST.- 8. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Introduction to Multiple-Wavelength Spectrophotometric Measurements in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Definitions.- 3. Applications in Analytical Chemistry.- 4. Applications in Clinical Chemistry.- 5. Epilogue.- References.- 3. Bichromatic Analysis: The Design and Function of the ABA-100.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Design Principles.- 3. Performance of Individual Instrument Functions.- 3.1. Photometric Uncertainty and Linearity.- 3.2. Control of Reaction Temperature.- 3.3. Sample Evaporation.- 3.4. Volume Measurement.- 3.5. Performance Characteristics Unique to Bichromatic Measurements.- 4. Automation of a Specific Method with the ABA.- 5. Quality Control.- 6. Special Applications.- 7. Epilogue.- References.- 4. Bichromatic Analysis as Performed in the Du Pont Automatic Clinical Analyzer (¿aca¿).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Analytical Test Pack.- 2.1. Header.- 2.2. Pack Envelope.- 3. Instrument.- 3.1. Sample Handling/Pack Filling.- 3.2. Timing, Temperature, Reagent Addition/Mixing, and Incubation.- 4. Measurement System.- 4.1. Measurement Techniques.- 4.2. Electro-Optical System Description.- 4.3. Zero Absorbance Requirement.- 4.4. Output Result Performance and Calibration.- 5. Measurement Principles.- 5.1. Implementation.- 5.2. Representative Examples.- 5.3. Reaction Time Courses.- 5.4. Chromophore Spectra.- 5.5. Performance.- 6. Advantages.- 6.1. Disadvantages.- 6.2. Future Applications.- References.- 5. The Analysis of Matrix Formatted Multicomponent Data.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Data Reduction Strategies in Analytical Chemistry.- 1.2. Description of MFMDT.- 2. Linear Algebra Review.- 2.1. Vectors and Matrices.- 2.2. Arithmetic of Matrices.- 2.3. Matrix Solution of a System of Linear Equations.- 2.4. Basis and Rank.- 2.5. Identity and Inverse Matrices.- 2.6. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.- 2.7. Glossary.- 3. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Qualitative Analysis of the Fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (FEEM).- 3.1. Properties of Fluorescence Emission.- 3.2. Principles of Qualitative Analysis of the FEEM by MFMDT.- 3.3. Qualitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 3.4. Qualitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 4. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Quantitative Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.1. Theory of Least Squares Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.2. Theory of Linear Programming Analyses (Simplex Method) of the FEEM.- 4.3. Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 4.4. Quantitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 5. Summary and Conclusion.- 5.1. Effectiveness of MFMDT for Analysis of Multicomponent Fluorescence Data.- 5.2. Expansion and Future Applications of MFMDT.- 6. Appendices.- 6.1. Fortran Subroutines for Qualitative Analysis.- 6.2. Fortran Subroutines for Quantitative Analysis.- References.- 6. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation of Convolved Excitation and Multiple Emission Response Functions.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Luminescence Processes.- 1.2. Modern Instrumentation.- 1.3. Algorithms for Nonlinear Data Analysis.- 2. Instrumentation and Analytical Parameters.- 2.1. Time Correlated Single-Photon Method.- 2.2. Theory.- 2.3. Pile-Up.- 2.4. Time-to-Amplitude Converter.- 2.5. Excitation Source.- 2.6. Optics.- 2.7. Photomultiplier Tube.- 2.8. Start and Stop Lines.- 2.9. Timing Filter Amplifier (TFA).- 2.10. Analytical Considerations¿ Intensity versus Concentration.- 2.11. Scattered Excitation Radiation.- 2.12. Analytical Wavelength and Bandpass Selection.- 2.13. Linearity versus Concentration.- 3. Data Handling.- 3.1. Theory and

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 29.09.2020
Zum Angebot
Catalysis to produce hydrogen
69,99 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

The share market of hydrogen is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production by using metal catalyst will need to increase with this growing market. However, some carbon is deposited on the catalyst but there was a window of operation where the deposited carbon did not have too great an effect on hydrogen production under different conditions. Carbon formation deactivates the catalyst, resulting in short life cycles. In order to improve process performance, in particular minimizing catalyst deactivation caused by carbon formation and maximizing the yield of hydrogen product, the addition of the promoters to catalyst is the most familiar method. The book is focused on the art of the promoters application on metal catalyst for hydrogen production from the methane steam reforming process at high pressure and the steam iron process over promoted Fe-oxide based catalyst.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 29.09.2020
Zum Angebot