In earlier days in Kathmandu, the vehicles were in limited numbers. There were very old vehicles which was not emission free. Vehicles like Volkswagen Bettle, Volkswagen Camper, Bajaj Tempo and other were in use at that time. But now the automobile market in Nepal is increasing quickly. There are lots of vehicles in the streets of Kathmandu. This increased number of diesel and petrol vehicle has raised a major problem including congested roads, traffic jams, road accidents, air pollution and so on. These kinds of problems can be reduced by use of zero emission vehicles.
A real-time capable in-cylinder pressure based diesel engine-out PM estimator has been developed. Using the ECU signals and in-cylinder pressure data new variables have been derived and used as inputs for an exponential zero dimensional modeling approach. This approach required little computational effort making the ECU capable of cycle based PM emissions calculation, significantly faster than in real-time. Along with the PM estimator an accurate NOx emissions model has been utilized in a MIMO feedback controller motivated by the gain scheduling concept. Two types of experimental passenger car DI diesel engines, equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors have been used. Measurements have been taken during steady state and transient operation on engine test benches for development work. Implementation of the emission models and the controller has been done on a test vehicle and tests were carried out on the test track and vehicle test bench. Good correlation between the estimated and measured PM has been achieved for various experiments, not only at steady state operation but also for transient states. Particularly, the model delivers good qualitative results in general, as well as good quantitative results in some regions. PM emission gradients between operating points are represented successfully. The raw emissions controller – despite further need for optimization – has been successful in controlling PM and NOx emissions simultaneously over EGR and pilot injection quantity. Gain scheduling has eliminated the need for an inverse combustion model. EGR and injector actuators were manipulated in a cascaded controller structure where the designed PI controllers altered reference values of the actual EGR and pilot injection quantity controllers that were already present in the system.
Toyota Prius. Hybrid electric vehicle, Toyota, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle, Power steering, Partial zero- emissions vehicle, Electronic key, Electronic stability control, Intelligent Parking Assist System, Hybrid Synergy Drive, Motor Trend Car of the Year
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Vehicles and other mobile machinery used for transport (over land, sea, air, rail) and for other uses (agricultural, mobile power generation, etc) contribute heavily to climate change and pollution, so zero emission engines are an area of active research. These technologies almost in all cases include an electric engine powered by an energy source compact enough to be installed in the vehicle. These sources include hydrogen fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and flywheel energy storage devices. In some cases, such as compressed air engines, the engine may be mechanical rather than electrical. This mechanical engine is then powered by a passive energy source like compressed air, or a combustible non-polluting gas like hydrogen. The above engines can be used in all vehicles, from cars to boats to propeller airplanes. For boats, energy sources such as nuclear power and solar panels can also be a viable option, in addition to traditional sails and turbosails.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. A Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle is a vehicle that has zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system, has a 15 year (or at least 150,000 mile) warranty and meets SULEV tailpipe emission standards.PZEVs have their own administrative category within the state of California for low emission vehicles.This vehicle category was created as part of a bargain with the California Air Resources Board (CARB), so that the automobile manufacturers could postpone producing mandated zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), which will require the production of electric vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Mini E is an all-electric powered version of the BMW Mini, first launched to the market as a field test in June 2009 and available through leasing to private users in Los Angeles and the New York/New Jersey area. Another field test was launched in the U.K. in December 2009, where more than forty Mini E cars were handed to private users for a two consecutive six-month field trial periods. This trial program allowed the BMW Group to become the world's first major car manufacturer to deploy a fleet of more than 500 all-electric vehicles for private use. The Mini E was unveiled at the 2008 Los Angeles Auto Show. BMW is using its Mini brand to test the market with its electric powertrain technology but the vehicle was also developed in order to meet new California regulations that require carmakers to offer zero emission vehicles. The Mini factory located in Oxford, England, supplies vehicle gliders (cars without powertrains) to a team located in Munich, Germany, which then adds the electric running gear.
The General Motors EV1 was an electric car produced and leased by the General Motors Corporation from 1996 to 1999. It was the first mass-produced and purpose-designed electric vehicle of the modern era from a major automaker, and the first GM car designed to be an electric vehicle from the outset. The decision to mass-produce an electric car came after GM received a favorable reception for its 1990 Impact electric concept car, upon which the design of the EV1 drew heavily. Inspired partly by the Impact's perceived potential for success, the California Air Resources Board subsequently passed a mandate that made the production and sale of zero-emission vehicles a requirement for the seven major automakers selling cars in the United States to continue to market their vehicles in California. The EV1 was made available through limited lease-only agreements, initially to residents of the cities of Los Angeles, California and Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona.
The General Motors EV1 was an electric car produced and leased by the General Motors Corporation from 1996 to 1999. It was the first mass-produced and purpose-designed electric vehicle of the modern era from a major automaker, and the first GM car designed to be an electric vehicle from the outset. The decision to mass-produce an electric car came after GM received a favorable reception for its 1990 Impact electric concept car, upon which the design of the EV1 drew heavily. Inspired partly by the Impact's perceived potential for success, the California Air Resources Board subsequently passed a mandate that made the production and sale of zero-emission vehicles a requirement for the seven major automakers selling cars in the United States to continue to market their vehicles in California
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Electrosport (also described as "Electric- sport") was a compact electric vehicle built by the Electric Fuel Propulsion Company (EFP) of Ferndale, Michigan. The zero-emission Electrosport concept cars were made using American Motors (AMC) Hornet sedans and Sportabout station wagons from 1971 to 1974. The Electrosport was designed to be a supplementary vehicle for commuting or daily chores and to be recharged at home using household current as well as at Charge Stations away from home to replenish power in 45 minutes. The company also established the World s First Electric Car Expressway between Detroit and Chicago (a distance of about 300 miles (483 km)) that consisted of Interstate 94, but with six 50 kW charging stations that were located at Holiday Inn hotels near the highway. Additional charging stations were planned.