Hydropower, an important source of renewable energy is favored because of several important features like zero carbon emission, low operating cost, significant operating flexibility, reliability etc. The present study finds the empirical efficiency of different units of the Teesta-V hydropower project of Sikkim, a northeastern state of India. The results show that all the units of the power project perform differently, though their technical specifications are same. The study also investigates the role of different determinants of power generation in order to understand their impact on the same. It reveals that minimum inflow has significant role in non-rainy season on generation, but not in rainy season. The work also analyses the temporal behavior of inflow by modeling the same using Box-Jenkins methodology of time series analysis.
Near zero emission hydrogen-based processes, especially with respect to greenhouse gas emission, can be achieved if hydrogen originates from renewable feedstock, such as bio-ethanol. Indeed, bio-ethanol is almost neutral from the standpoint of global warming because its production through agriculture consumes just slightly less CO2 than is produced during combustion. The present book reports findings on hydrogen production from ethanol by non-catalytic supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO).
This book describes the challenges and solutions the energy sector faces by shifting towards a hydrogen based fuel economy. The most current and up-to-date efforts of countries and leaders in the automotive sector are reviewed as they strive to develop technology and find solutions to production, storage, and distribution challenges. Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen and is often used with electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. This book offers unique solutions to integrating renewable sources of energy like wind or solar power into the production of hydrogen fuel, making it a cost effective, efficient and truly renewable alternative fuel.
- Explore the countryside of Amsterdam and cruise along the beautiful typical Dutch landscapes - Explore the old-harbour villages of Volendam and Edam within 1.5 hours- Enjoy the different photostops; Volendam famous harbour, Volendam Doolhof ‘maze’, The Volendam/Edam dike, The beautiful canals of Edam- Visit the Great Church of Edam, The Musicaltower ‘Speeltoren’, The Katwouder windmill and other great spots- Enjoy the green plains with its' grazing animals.- See a traditional working windmill- Determine your own track, your own speed and the locations you want to hop off. Get advised about details of this route by our friendly staff- Travel green, in silence and with zero emission on the super cool E-scooter!
Hydrogen is believed to be the energy source of the future, enabling zero-emission and efficient production of power. This comprehensive publication presents a broad spectrum of various chemical aspects of hydrogen storage. The authors also address global climate change issues, carbon dioxide sequestration problems and CO2-based hydrogen storage.
Part I: The problem of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas is dealt with to determine the condensate statistics. A brief description of the inter-relations between various ensembles of statistical mechanics is given. Thereafter, various canonical ensemble methods applied to the trapped ideal Bose gas are discussed in great detail. Further, strategies to convert the canonical ensemble results into the microcanonical ensemble description are also discussed. Part II: Various topics bound by a common theme based on the principle of atomic coherence are studied in the second part. First a scheme exploiting interference of incoherent pump processes to achieve strong control over the total spontaneous emission from a three-level atom is discussed. Thereafter various schemes to achieve radiative cooling without the presence of spontaneous emission on the cooling transition are considered. This allows cooling to an internal absolute zero of temperature in an atomic system in very small number of steps. In the last chapter a transient regime for gain without inversion is considered in a three level lambda system that may be easier to implement.
The UN Climate Change Conference in Paris, with its key topics of global warming and deteriorating air quality, will speed up the advance of electric mobility. CO2-neutral and zero-emission mobility require electricity to be generated from regenerative sources of energy. Power generation from wind and solar energy, however is dependent on the weather and is therefore not stable. The irregularities that occur in nature can result in unacceptable voltage fluctuations in the power grid. For that reason, the availability of highly flexible loads and storage systems is becoming particularly important. Electric vehicles, with their grid-relevant properties as controllable power consumers and electricity storage systems, could help to stabilize future power grids.
The book covers the various approaches to modeling the in-cylinder processes such as mixture formation, combustion and formation of exhaust emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. Due to their complexity emphasis is put on multi-dimensional spray, combustion and emission formation models. However, phenomenological as well as zero-dimensional thermodynamic models, which are still widely used in engine development because of their computational efficiency, are addressed as well. Example calculations of each model type are compared with corresponding experimental data ¿ represented in diagrams as well as in images resulting from modern optical measuring techniques ¿ in order to discuss the capabilities of today's simulation models as well as the shortcomings that still exist either because of oversimplifying assumptions or because of insufficient knowledge of the real processes. The reader will be provided with an overview of the most important simulation models describing the in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. In addition, suggestions are made about which modeling approach is appropriate for a specific type of problem.Now available in paperback, this book provides a comprehensive account of survey sampling theory and methodology suitable for students and researchers across a variety of disciplines. It shows how statistical modeling is a vital component of the sampling process and in the choice of estimation technique. The first textbook that systematically extends traditional sampling theory with the aid of a modern model assisted outlook. Covers classical topics as well as areas where significant new developments have taken place.
A real-time capable in-cylinder pressure based diesel engine-out PM estimator has been developed. Using the ECU signals and in-cylinder pressure data new variables have been derived and used as inputs for an exponential zero dimensional modeling approach. This approach required little computational effort making the ECU capable of cycle based PM emissions calculation, significantly faster than in real-time. Along with the PM estimator an accurate NOx emissions model has been utilized in a MIMO feedback controller motivated by the gain scheduling concept. Two types of experimental passenger car DI diesel engines, equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors have been used. Measurements have been taken during steady state and transient operation on engine test benches for development work. Implementation of the emission models and the controller has been done on a test vehicle and tests were carried out on the test track and vehicle test bench. Good correlation between the estimated and measured PM has been achieved for various experiments, not only at steady state operation but also for transient states. Particularly, the model delivers good qualitative results in general, as well as good quantitative results in some regions. PM emission gradients between operating points are represented successfully. The raw emissions controller – despite further need for optimization – has been successful in controlling PM and NOx emissions simultaneously over EGR and pilot injection quantity. Gain scheduling has eliminated the need for an inverse combustion model. EGR and injector actuators were manipulated in a cascaded controller structure where the designed PI controllers altered reference values of the actual EGR and pilot injection quantity controllers that were already present in the system.
Nicht nur aus wirtschaftlichen Überlegungen ist dieSuche nach neuen Wegen in der Siedlungswasserwirtschaft dringendnotwendig. Auch viele ökologische Argumente sprechen für einÜberdenken der traditionellen, zentralen Systeme derAbwasserentsorgung. Linear geführte Stoffströme und die Unterbrechung der Nährstoffkreisläufe werden als das immanente Problem der zentralen Abwasserentsorgungssysteme genannt undgelten als verantwortlich für die erkannten Defizite. Dezentrale, alternative Ansätze favorisieren dieSeparierung der Teilstoffströme und deren getrennte Behandlung direktam Ort des Stoffanfalls.Basierend auf der Philosophie der Zero EmissionResearch Initiative (ZERI) untersucht dieses Buch konventionelle Systeme der Abwasserentsorgung sowie alternative, dezentrale Abwassersysteme und zeigtderen Defizite auf. Ergänzend werden weiterführende Verwertungsstrategienund Konzepte für stoffstromorientierte Abwassersystememit dem Ansatz der Zero Emission entwickelt. Bei der Entwicklung stoffstromorientierter Gesamtkonzepte dürfen derKreativität dabeigrundsätzlich keine Grenzen gesetzt werden.
As Ethiopia aims to leap frog to a middle income country, with an ambitious zero net emission by 2025, the country is working strenuously on renewable and clean energy. But on the other hand rapid economic growth and population expansion are putting high demand for energy, water and food. Energy plays a central part in Ethiopia's effort to the reduction of poverty and to achieving sustainable development, since it touches all features of development, economic, social, and environment, including household welfare, health, population levels, and education and gender issues. In addition none of the SDGs can be met without access to clean and efficient energy services. This paper identified the Impact of Small Scale Biogas Technology on Household Income and Health in Ada'a local administration, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. 9 kebeles (smallest local administration) were purposively selected where there are high number of biogas users.
Minimizing CO2 emission by following ZEB strategies in Sweden ab 49 € als Taschenbuch: Zero Energy/Emission Building. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,