The book covers the various approaches to modeling the in-cylinder processes such as mixture formation, combustion and formation of exhaust emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. Due to their complexity emphasis is put on multi-dimensional spray, combustion and emission formation models. However, phenomenological as well as zero-dimensional thermodynamic models, which are still widely used in engine development because of their computational efficiency, are addressed as well. Example calculations of each model type are compared with corresponding experimental data ¿ represented in diagrams as well as in images resulting from modern optical measuring techniques ¿ in order to discuss the capabilities of today's simulation models as well as the shortcomings that still exist either because of oversimplifying assumptions or because of insufficient knowledge of the real processes. The reader will be provided with an overview of the most important simulation models describing the in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. In addition, suggestions are made about which modeling approach is appropriate for a specific type of problem.Now available in paperback, this book provides a comprehensive account of survey sampling theory and methodology suitable for students and researchers across a variety of disciplines. It shows how statistical modeling is a vital component of the sampling process and in the choice of estimation technique. The first textbook that systematically extends traditional sampling theory with the aid of a modern model assisted outlook. Covers classical topics as well as areas where significant new developments have taken place.
Erscheinungsdatum: 04/2011, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: ZERO CARBON EMISSION IN UK'S DOMESTIC BUILDINGS:, Titelzusatz: The Potentials of Onsite Renewables and Retrofitting, Autor: Mambo, Abdulhameed Danjuma, Verlag: VDM Verlag, Sprache: Englisch, Rubrik: Bau- und Umwelttechnik, Seiten: 64, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 115 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
New competitive pressures are unsettling traditional carmakers. These include: new consumer groups in emerging markets, zero emission requirements, new competitors from emerging markets, and increasing dependency on suppliers. These pressures require carmakers to react more rapidly while designing new vehicles. New product development is the core process used to develop synergy between customer requirements and the objectives of the carmakers to produce successful automobiles. This has served carmakers well during an era of relatively stable competition with easily recognizable technologies and competitors. In a new area, where technologies are changing rapidly and new competition is emerging, there is a need for a new approach to new product development. A review of existing innovation patterns of both traditional and emerging carmakers has led to the development of an emerging methodology that consists of concept, design and validation phases. A case study based approach focusing on Chinese and German carmakers shows their distinct strategies. The emerging new product development methodology allows carmakers to better cope with changing requirements in the industry.
BIOFUEL SUSTAINABILITY: There has been a higher decline in the easily available fossil fuels and as well, with their availability, there is serious concern about the carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions any time such fuels are burnt. Carbon dioxide poses serious threat to the atmospheric environment and can lead to global warming and, nitrogen dioxide emission can lead to acidic rain which is detrimental to the natural environment and can as well involve in stratospheric ozone reactions and lead to climate change. Biomass is indeed considered as the most promising resource since it is very abundant and sustainable. Biomass can therefore be used to produce environmental friendly liquid fuel via a number of technological processes such as pyrolysis. Biomass derived fuels when burnt produces zero or negative carbon dioxide emissions due to the fact that the plants utilizes carbon dioxide during the photosynthesis process. This book therefore outlines the steps involved in producing clean green transport fuel from biomass(wood pellets) by pyrolysis and how the pyrolysis oil is upgraded via catalytic hydrothermal treatment.
Hydrogen is believed to be the energy source of the future, enabling zero-emission and efficient production of power. This comprehensive publication presents a broad spectrum of various chemical aspects of hydrogen storage. The authors also address global climate change issues, carbon dioxide sequestration problems and CO2-based hydrogen storage.
Tolle Design-Stehleuchte Flechtwerk mit grandiosen Lichteffekten Wie die meisten Designprodukte weist auch diese Stehleuchte allerlei Besonderheiten auf, die nicht alle beim ersten Blick ins Auge fallen. Die Optik jedoch zählt natürlich zu dem, was sich dem Betrachter sofort eröffnet. Trichterförmig öffnet sich der dunkle Schirm nach oben und ähnelt damit von der Funktion her auch einem Deckenfluter. Die Lichtwirkung ist ähnlich gemütlich, allerdings punktet der Schirm der Design-Stehleuchte Flechtwerk mit einer einzigartigen Struktur, die auch an ein Schachbrett erinnert. Auslassungen im Schirm und die kleinen, grafitfarbenen Elemente wechseln sich in festgelegter Struktur ab und sind bei eingeschalteter Leuchte für einen eleganten Lichteffekt zuständig, der nicht nur die Leuchte direkt betrifft, sondern auch noch die umliegenden Projektionsflächen, wo sich ein tolles Muster aus Licht und Schatten abbildet. Dabei besteht der in Deutschland gefertigte Schirm nicht etwa aus Kunststoff, sondern ist aus einem innovativen Biomaterial gefertigt worden, das sich durch Leichtigkeit, Stabilität und Abwischbarkeit auszeichnet, als Materialgrundlage nur nachwachsende Rohstoffe hat und überdies frei von Erdölen und toxischen Bestandteilen ist. Die Produktion im 3D-Drucker erfolgt mit Null-Emission und Ökostrom und auch die Zero-Waste-Idee (verbraucht wird nur das, was auch wirklich Teil des Schirms ist) steht in Übereinstimmung mit dem Nachhaltigkeitsgedanken, den die Designer bei der Produktion ihrer Leuchten verfolgen. Energieeffizienzklasse: A++
Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Costs (BATNEEC) is a sustainable waste management system that effectively analyses series of methodologies, Best Practicable Environmental Options (BPEO) and their impacts as applicable in solid waste management within the environment to reducing cost, fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions as the key performance indicators, in line to ensuring global sustainability of Zero waste tolerance. It's generally known in most developed nations such as EU with recent regulations and practices has given preferences on preventive measures to reduce waste volumes through different processes of management. Similarly, revers is the case when compared with the developing nations. As this research had reveled vast resources through waste disposals yet on taped from Nigerian waste sector, vis-a-vis the sequential quantifications of Nigerian carbon footprint in GHG emission of CO2 and CH4 equivalent in tons.
Near zero emission hydrogen-based processes, especially with respect to greenhouse gas emission, can be achieved if hydrogen originates from renewable feedstock, such as bio-ethanol. Indeed, bio-ethanol is almost neutral from the standpoint of global warming because its production through agriculture consumes just slightly less CO2 than is produced during combustion. The present book reports findings on hydrogen production from ethanol by non-catalytic supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO).
In earlier days in Kathmandu, the vehicles were in limited numbers. There were very old vehicles which was not emission free. Vehicles like Volkswagen Bettle, Volkswagen Camper, Bajaj Tempo and other were in use at that time. But now the automobile market in Nepal is increasing quickly. There are lots of vehicles in the streets of Kathmandu. This increased number of diesel and petrol vehicle has raised a major problem including congested roads, traffic jams, road accidents, air pollution and so on. These kinds of problems can be reduced by use of zero emission vehicles.
This book describes the challenges and solutions the energy sector faces by shifting towards a hydrogen based fuel economy. The most current and up-to-date efforts of countries and leaders in the automotive sector are reviewed as they strive to develop technology and find solutions to production, storage, and distribution challenges. Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen and is often used with electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. This book offers unique solutions to integrating renewable sources of energy like wind or solar power into the production of hydrogen fuel, making it a cost effective, efficient and truly renewable alternative fuel.
With growing concern towards environmental clean-up, it is clear that a zero-emission technology can only be developed by utilization of biological entities. Bioremediation is one such technology which is very effective as well low on resources. The research presented in this book is particularly useful for understanding degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in environemnt. The Pseudomonas strain utilized for biosurfactant production that too over recalcitrant organic media i.e Benzene, Toluene and Xylene. The work not only includes many interesting results but above everything else, it deals lot in protocol development as well. This includes various biochemical testings, analytical testings, customized molecular biology techniques and some inventive procedures left for you to fine tune as per your need. This book in true terms, takes you across the various planes over which a researcher goes through when trying something new in terms of protocol development in field of bioremediation and analytical research. I hope you will appreciate our small yet meaningful research dedicated to the the spirit of scientific inquiry and selflessness.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The W and Z? bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak force. Their discovery has been heralded as a major success for the Standard Model of particle physics. The W particle is named after the weak nuclear force. The Z particle was semi-humorously given its name because it was said to be the last particle to need discovery. Another explanation is that the Z particle derives its name from having zero electric charge. All three types have a spin of 1. The emission of a W+ or W? boson either raises or lowers the electric charge of the emitting particle by 1 unit, and alters the spin by 1 unit. At the same time a W boson can change the generation of the particle, for example changing a strange quark to an up quark. The Z boson cannot change either electric charge nor any other charges (like strangeness, charm, etc.), only spin and momentum, so it never changes the generation or flavour of the particle emitting it.