Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Volkswagen New Beetle was introduced by Volkswagen in 1998, drawing heavy inspiration from the exterior design of the original Beetle. Unlike the Beetle, the New Beetle has its engine in the front driving the front wheels and luggage storage in the rear.At the 1994 North American International Auto Show, Volkswagen unveiled the J Mays-penned "Concept 1" with lines heavily influenced by the original Beetle. It was equipped with "large diameter" 17 inch wheels (with the VW logo, just like the original Beetle hub cap) with low-profile tires. Also, in the concept car, there was a "zero emission" hybrid design.
The share market of hydrogen is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production by using metal catalyst will need to increase with this growing market. However, some carbon is deposited on the catalyst but there was a window of operation where the deposited carbon did not have too great an effect on hydrogen production under different conditions. Carbon formation deactivates the catalyst, resulting in short life cycles. In order to improve process performance, in particular minimizing catalyst deactivation caused by carbon formation and maximizing the yield of hydrogen product, the addition of the promoters to catalyst is the most familiar method. The book is focused on the art of the promoters application on metal catalyst for hydrogen production from the methane steam reforming process at high pressure and the steam iron process over promoted Fe-oxide based catalyst.
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), as a source of electrical power, provides numerous benefits such as zero carbon emission and high reliability as compared to wind and solar energy. The first part of this book attempt to model the voltage of PEMFC using simple and effective semi-empirical equations. The initial feature of the proposed technique is to incorporate the features of the mechanistic model with less complex equations. The second part of the book focuses on modelling the PEMFC temperature. The fault diagnosis procedure has also been elaborated for flooding and drying faults of PEMFC. Moreover, the electrical equivalent modelling has also been discussed all of the above-mentioned models consider ambient conditions changes directly.
Part I: The problem of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas is dealt with to determine the condensate statistics. A brief description of the inter-relations between various ensembles of statistical mechanics is given. Thereafter, various canonical ensemble methods applied to the trapped ideal Bose gas are discussed in great detail. Further, strategies to convert the canonical ensemble results into the microcanonical ensemble description are also discussed. Part II: Various topics bound by a common theme based on the principle of atomic coherence are studied in the second part. First a scheme exploiting interference of incoherent pump processes to achieve strong control over the total spontaneous emission from a three-level atom is discussed. Thereafter various schemes to achieve radiative cooling without the presence of spontaneous emission on the cooling transition are considered. This allows cooling to an internal absolute zero of temperature in an atomic system in very small number of steps. In the last chapter a transient regime for gain without inversion is considered in a three level lambda system that may be easier to implement.
Fluidized bed technologies for near-zero emission combustion and gasification provides an overview of established FB technologies while also detailing recent developments in the field.
Tolle Design-Stehleuchte Flechtwerk mit grandiosen Lichteffekten Wie die meisten Designprodukte weist auch diese Stehleuchte allerlei Besonderheiten auf, die nicht alle beim ersten Blick ins Auge fallen. Die Optik jedoch zählt natürlich zu dem, was sich dem Betrachter sofort eröffnet. Trichterförmig öffnet sich der dunkle Schirm nach oben und ähnelt damit von der Funktion her auch einem Deckenfluter. Die Lichtwirkung ist ähnlich gemütlich, allerdings punktet der Schirm der Design-Stehleuchte Flechtwerk mit einer einzigartigen Struktur, die auch an ein Schachbrett erinnert. Auslassungen im Schirm und die kleinen, grafitfarbenen Elemente wechseln sich in festgelegter Struktur ab und sind bei eingeschalteter Leuchte für einen eleganten Lichteffekt zuständig, der nicht nur die Leuchte direkt betrifft, sondern auch noch die umliegenden Projektionsflächen, wo sich ein tolles Muster aus Licht und Schatten abbildet. Dabei besteht der in Deutschland gefertigte Schirm nicht etwa aus Kunststoff, sondern ist aus einem innovativen Biomaterial gefertigt worden, das sich durch Leichtigkeit, Stabilität und Abwischbarkeit auszeichnet, als Materialgrundlage nur nachwachsende Rohstoffe hat und überdies frei von Erdölen und toxischen Bestandteilen ist. Die Produktion im 3D-Drucker erfolgt mit Null-Emission und Ökostrom und auch die Zero-Waste-Idee (verbraucht wird nur das, was auch wirklich Teil des Schirms ist) steht in Übereinstimmung mit dem Nachhaltigkeitsgedanken, den die Designer bei der Produktion ihrer Leuchten verfolgen. Energieeffizienzklasse: A++
This book describes the challenges and solutions the energy sector faces by shifting towards a hydrogen based fuel economy. The most current and up-to-date efforts of countries and leaders in the automotive sector are reviewed as they strive to develop technology and find solutions to production, storage, and distribution challenges. Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen and is often used with electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. This book offers unique solutions to integrating renewable sources of energy like wind or solar power into the production of hydrogen fuel, making it a cost effective, efficient and truly renewable alternative fuel.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Eliica (or the Electric Lithium-Ion Car) is a battery electric vehicle prototype or concept car first shown in 2004 and designed by a team at Keio University in Tokyo, led by Professor Hiroshi Shimizu. The 5.1 m (17 ft) car runs on a lithium-ion battery and can accelerate from 0 100 km/h (62 mph) in four seconds (faster than the Porsche 911 Turbo at the time). In 2004, the Eliica reached a speed of 370 km/h (230 mph) on Italy''s Nardò High Speed Track. The team''s goal is to exceed 400 km/h (250 mph), breaking the record set by today''s street- legal gasoline-powered vehicles. The Eliica is a refinement of the earlier KAZ (Keio Advanced Zero- emission vehicle), a 6.7 m (22 ft) limousine-sized 8- wheel 8-person electric vehicle prototype of 2003 that also set speed records. The Eliica weighs in at 2,400 kg (5,300 lb) and seats the driver and three passengers. The body was tested in a wind tunnel. The front doors open forward and the rear doors open upward like wings.
Amorphous silicon is generally considered unsuitable for light emitting applications because of the indirect nature of its bandgap. Many efforts have been devoted towards the research of different systems compatible with a-Si technology and able to act as light emitters, among these are low-dimensional amorphous silicon structures. In these structures, it has been shown that, zero- phonon optical transitions are allowed and oscillator strength of the zero- phonon transition is significantly enhanced . Therefore, it is expected, the light emission properties will be improved. The aim of this study is to develop a photoluminescence a-SiQDs model, where its radiative recombination occurs at room temperature. This model is suggested, for the first time, both the effect of concepts, spatial and quantum confinements. This study may be able to show the differences between them. In fact, these concepts will be used to see the possibility for shifting the luminescence spectrum of a-SiQDs into visible region. The tuning the visible light by controlling the size of QDs also is taken into account.
With growing concern towards environmental clean-up, it is clear that a zero-emission technology can only be developed by utilization of biological entities. Bioremediation is one such technology which is very effective as well low on resources. The research presented in this book is particularly useful for understanding degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in environemnt. The Pseudomonas strain utilized for biosurfactant production that too over recalcitrant organic media i.e Benzene, Toluene and Xylene. The work not only includes many interesting results but above everything else, it deals lot in protocol development as well. This includes various biochemical testings, analytical testings, customized molecular biology techniques and some inventive procedures left for you to fine tune as per your need. This book in true terms, takes you across the various planes over which a researcher goes through when trying something new in terms of protocol development in field of bioremediation and analytical research. I hope you will appreciate our small yet meaningful research dedicated to the the spirit of scientific inquiry and selflessness.
1. Polychromatic Analysis Using the Technicon STAC¿ Analyzer.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The STAC Analyzer.- 2.1. Diluter/Dispenser Module.- 2.2. Analytical Module.- 2.3. Electronics Module.- 3. General Theory.- 4. Selection of Primary and Secondary Wavelengths.- 5. Classification of Polychromatic Analysis.- 5.1. Correction for Nonreactive (Static or Time Invariant Interferences).- 5.2. Correction for Reactive (Kinetic) Interferences.- 5.3. Correction for a Combination of Both Reactive and Nonreactive Interferences.- 5.4. Detection of Substrate Depletion.- 6. STAC Assays.- 7. Examples of Polychromatic Analysis.- 7.1. Calcium.- 7.2. Total Bilirubin.- 7.3. Uric Acid.- 7.4. Triglycerides.- 7.5. AST.- 8. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Introduction to Multiple-Wavelength Spectrophotometric Measurements in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Definitions.- 3. Applications in Analytical Chemistry.- 4. Applications in Clinical Chemistry.- 5. Epilogue.- References.- 3. Bichromatic Analysis: The Design and Function of the ABA-100.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Design Principles.- 3. Performance of Individual Instrument Functions.- 3.1. Photometric Uncertainty and Linearity.- 3.2. Control of Reaction Temperature.- 3.3. Sample Evaporation.- 3.4. Volume Measurement.- 3.5. Performance Characteristics Unique to Bichromatic Measurements.- 4. Automation of a Specific Method with the ABA.- 5. Quality Control.- 6. Special Applications.- 7. Epilogue.- References.- 4. Bichromatic Analysis as Performed in the Du Pont Automatic Clinical Analyzer (¿aca¿).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Analytical Test Pack.- 2.1. Header.- 2.2. Pack Envelope.- 3. Instrument.- 3.1. Sample Handling/Pack Filling.- 3.2. Timing, Temperature, Reagent Addition/Mixing, and Incubation.- 4. Measurement System.- 4.1. Measurement Techniques.- 4.2. Electro-Optical System Description.- 4.3. Zero Absorbance Requirement.- 4.4. Output Result Performance and Calibration.- 5. Measurement Principles.- 5.1. Implementation.- 5.2. Representative Examples.- 5.3. Reaction Time Courses.- 5.4. Chromophore Spectra.- 5.5. Performance.- 6. Advantages.- 6.1. Disadvantages.- 6.2. Future Applications.- References.- 5. The Analysis of Matrix Formatted Multicomponent Data.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Data Reduction Strategies in Analytical Chemistry.- 1.2. Description of MFMDT.- 2. Linear Algebra Review.- 2.1. Vectors and Matrices.- 2.2. Arithmetic of Matrices.- 2.3. Matrix Solution of a System of Linear Equations.- 2.4. Basis and Rank.- 2.5. Identity and Inverse Matrices.- 2.6. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.- 2.7. Glossary.- 3. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Qualitative Analysis of the Fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (FEEM).- 3.1. Properties of Fluorescence Emission.- 3.2. Principles of Qualitative Analysis of the FEEM by MFMDT.- 3.3. Qualitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 3.4. Qualitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 4. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Quantitative Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.1. Theory of Least Squares Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.2. Theory of Linear Programming Analyses (Simplex Method) of the FEEM.- 4.3. Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 4.4. Quantitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 5. Summary and Conclusion.- 5.1. Effectiveness of MFMDT for Analysis of Multicomponent Fluorescence Data.- 5.2. Expansion and Future Applications of MFMDT.- 6. Appendices.- 6.1. Fortran Subroutines for Qualitative Analysis.- 6.2. Fortran Subroutines for Quantitative Analysis.- References.- 6. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation of Convolved Excitation and Multiple Emission Response Functions.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Luminescence Processes.- 1.2. Modern Instrumentation.- 1.3. Algorithms for Nonlinear Data Analysis.- 2. Instrumentation and Analytical Parameters.- 2.1. Time Correlated Single-Photon Method.- 2.2. Theory.- 2.3. Pile-Up.- 2.4. Time-to-Amplitude Converter.- 2.5. Excitation Source.- 2.6. Optics.- 2.7. Photomultiplier Tube.- 2.8. Start and Stop Lines.- 2.9. Timing Filter Amplifier (TFA).- 2.10. Analytical Considerations¿ Intensity versus Concentration.- 2.11. Scattered Excitation Radiation.- 2.12. Analytical Wavelength and Bandpass Selection.- 2.13. Linearity versus Concentration.- 3. Data Handling.- 3.1. Theory and
Hydrogen is believed to be the energy source of the future, enabling zero-emission and efficient production of power. This comprehensive publication presents a broad spectrum of various chemical aspects of hydrogen storage. The authors also address global climate change issues, carbon dioxide sequestration problems and CO2-based hydrogen storage.