The book covers the various approaches to modeling the in-cylinder processes such as mixture formation, combustion and formation of exhaust emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. Due to their complexity emphasis is put on multi-dimensional spray, combustion and emission formation models. However, phenomenological as well as zero-dimensional thermodynamic models, which are still widely used in engine development because of their computational efficiency, are addressed as well. Example calculations of each model type are compared with corresponding experimental data ¿ represented in diagrams as well as in images resulting from modern optical measuring techniques ¿ in order to discuss the capabilities of today's simulation models as well as the shortcomings that still exist either because of oversimplifying assumptions or because of insufficient knowledge of the real processes. The reader will be provided with an overview of the most important simulation models describing the in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. In addition, suggestions are made about which modeling approach is appropriate for a specific type of problem.Now available in paperback, this book provides a comprehensive account of survey sampling theory and methodology suitable for students and researchers across a variety of disciplines. It shows how statistical modeling is a vital component of the sampling process and in the choice of estimation technique. The first textbook that systematically extends traditional sampling theory with the aid of a modern model assisted outlook. Covers classical topics as well as areas where significant new developments have taken place.
The General Motors EV1 was an electric car produced and leased by the General Motors Corporation from 1996 to 1999. It was the first mass-produced and purpose-designed electric vehicle of the modern era from a major automaker, and the first GM car designed to be an electric vehicle from the outset. The decision to mass-produce an electric car came after GM received a favorable reception for its 1990 Impact electric concept car, upon which the design of the EV1 drew heavily. Inspired partly by the Impact's perceived potential for success, the California Air Resources Board subsequently passed a mandate that made the production and sale of zero-emission vehicles a requirement for the seven major automakers selling cars in the United States to continue to market their vehicles in California. The EV1 was made available through limited lease-only agreements, initially to residents of the cities of Los Angeles, California and Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona.
With growing concern towards environmental clean-up, it is clear that a zero-emission technology can only be developed by utilization of biological entities. Bioremediation is one such technology which is very effective as well low on resources. The research presented in this book is particularly useful for understanding degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in environemnt. The Pseudomonas strain utilized for biosurfactant production that too over recalcitrant organic media i.e Benzene, Toluene and Xylene. The work not only includes many interesting results but above everything else, it deals lot in protocol development as well. This includes various biochemical testings, analytical testings, customized molecular biology techniques and some inventive procedures left for you to fine tune as per your need. This book in true terms, takes you across the various planes over which a researcher goes through when trying something new in terms of protocol development in field of bioremediation and analytical research. I hope you will appreciate our small yet meaningful research dedicated to the the spirit of scientific inquiry and selflessness.
Be picked up from hotel/apartment in Kraków by fully electric car KIA Soul or Nissan Leaf. Enjoy smooth and quiet ride by zero-emission car and get to Zakopane - city of polish Tatra Mountains, highlander's local folklore, traditional food and unique architecture. Contemplate a beautiful nature of polish highest mountains.Go back to Kraków relaxed and be dropped of in front of your accommodation.
Makes perfect espressos at the touch of a button and enjoy cappuccinos, caffelattes and create other milk drinks using the traditional frother- High performance 15 bar pump pressure- Stylish silver finish- Traditional milk frother- Can be used with either fresh coffee beans or ground coffee- Removable 1.8 litres water tank- Integrated professional burr grinder with 13 adjustable coarseness settings- Adjustable quantities of coffee and water to make an individually tailored cup of coffee- Electronic steam and coffee thermostat for accurate adjustable steam control- Removable brewing unit for easy cleaning- Automatic shut-off of machine after a pre-set time has elapsed- Adjustable steam emission- Advanced boiler system (thermoblock), for the perfect espresso – one or 2 cups it will always be the same perfect temperature- Rinse and decalcification auto-programmes variable to reflect local water hardness- Adjustable height of coffee dispenser to accommodate either full size or espresso size cups- Cup warmer- Removable drip tray with water level indicator- Energy saving function- Power supply switch for zero consumption
Tolle Design-Stehleuchte Flechtwerk mit grandiosen Lichteffekten Wie die meisten Designprodukte weist auch diese Stehleuchte allerlei Besonderheiten auf, die nicht alle beim ersten Blick ins Auge fallen. Die Optik jedoch zählt natürlich zu dem, was sich dem Betrachter sofort eröffnet. Trichterförmig öffnet sich der dunkle Schirm nach oben und ähnelt damit von der Funktion her auch einem Deckenfluter. Die Lichtwirkung ist ähnlich gemütlich, allerdings punktet der Schirm der Design-Stehleuchte Flechtwerk mit einer einzigartigen Struktur, die auch an ein Schachbrett erinnert. Auslassungen im Schirm und die kleinen, grafitfarbenen Elemente wechseln sich in festgelegter Struktur ab und sind bei eingeschalteter Leuchte für einen eleganten Lichteffekt zuständig, der nicht nur die Leuchte direkt betrifft, sondern auch noch die umliegenden Projektionsflächen, wo sich ein tolles Muster aus Licht und Schatten abbildet. Dabei besteht der in Deutschland gefertigte Schirm nicht etwa aus Kunststoff, sondern ist aus einem innovativen Biomaterial gefertigt worden, das sich durch Leichtigkeit, Stabilität und Abwischbarkeit auszeichnet, als Materialgrundlage nur nachwachsende Rohstoffe hat und überdies frei von Erdölen und toxischen Bestandteilen ist. Die Produktion im 3D-Drucker erfolgt mit Null-Emission und Ökostrom und auch die Zero-Waste-Idee (verbraucht wird nur das, was auch wirklich Teil des Schirms ist) steht in Übereinstimmung mit dem Nachhaltigkeitsgedanken, den die Designer bei der Produktion ihrer Leuchten verfolgen. Energieeffizienzklasse: A++
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Racing Green Endurance (RGE) is a student-led project at Imperial College London to demonstrate the potential of zero emission cars. The team will be racing 26,000 km up the Pan-American highway. The race is planned to start in May 2010. RGE is planning to enter the race with a car based on the chassis of the Radical SR8 but using a fully electric powertrain. Racing Green Endurance was born as a spin-off from Imperial Racing Green in late 2008. Imperial Racing Green is an undergraduate teaching project to design and build fuel cell/electric hybrid racing cars, involving around 100 students from 8 departments within the university. The students are now designing and building the third generation of fuel cell powered racers.
The important motivations for exploring alternative fuel resources are energy security and air pollution, problems that are collectively calling into question the fundamental sustainability of the current energy system.Hydrogen-fuelled engines with near-zero emissions are a potential near-term option and a bridge to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.With emission legislations getting more stringent,research studies have definitely established the advantages of extremely clean burning characteristics of hydrogen as a dual fuel in engines.But that said,the premium of using hydrogen as a green energy carrier needs to be augmented with studies on its potential to satisfy conventional engine combustion characteristics for ready deployment.In this present study, the performance and combustion analysis were carried out on an existing direct injection diesel engine at various load steppings using hydrogen inducted at different injection timings and injection durations.The findings of the study cater to its audience interested to employ such uses in practical diesel engines and also to those chartering a course of pursuance in the context of reducing emission from existing combustion engines.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Volkswagen New Beetle was introduced by Volkswagen in 1998, drawing heavy inspiration from the exterior design of the original Beetle. Unlike the Beetle, the New Beetle has its engine in the front driving the front wheels and luggage storage in the rear.At the 1994 North American International Auto Show, Volkswagen unveiled the J Mays-penned "Concept 1" with lines heavily influenced by the original Beetle. It was equipped with "large diameter" 17 inch wheels (with the VW logo, just like the original Beetle hub cap) with low-profile tires. Also, in the concept car, there was a "zero emission" hybrid design.
The earth is experiencing the adverse effect of climate change. In response to growing global warming issues and the constant increase of energy prices, house-builders and housing manufacturers today are becoming more responsive to the delivery of net zero energy and carbon dioxide emission sustainable homes than ever. Within this context, the sustainability may also embrace housing economy and adequacy beyond the legitimacy in which the quality barely coincides with individuals' dynamic various needs, desires and expectations. Nevertheless, the housing industry's business operation tends to follow routines and the close system mode of operation often hinders the enterprises from adopting unfamiliar innovations which may be inevitable in realising the delivery and operation of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable homes. This book showcases the zero energy mass custom home (ZEMCH) design workshop experience, which engaged with a wide spectrum of hopes and fears around the design, production and marketing approaches to low cost housing developments in Brazil.
The necessity to reduce green house gas emission and growing difficulties in fossil fuel recovery raise great challenges for the scientific community to develop efficient, low cost alternative energy sources. Hydrogen is sought by many as a way to store and transport energy produced from renewable sources. As a fuel hydrogen produces only water on burning and is not toxic in any way. Photolytic processes are very attractive for hydrogen production due to the zero greenhouse gas emissions, however, they can be commercially used only if limitations related to low efficiency and poor stability can be resolved. In this work we describe a novel cell structure for stable photo electrochemical water splitting that can be prepared by electrodeposition from ionic liquids at high temperature. The deposition methods developed here provide low cost and efficient way to synthesise high quality semiconductors and their alloys. The concept presented in this work can potentially be applied to a variety of efficient, yet unstable systems to achieve efficient and long lasting water splitting.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Mini E is an all-electric powered version of the BMW Mini, first launched to the market as a field test in June 2009 and available through leasing to private users in Los Angeles and the New York/New Jersey area. Another field test was launched in the U.K. in December 2009, where more than forty Mini E cars were handed to private users for a two consecutive six-month field trial periods. This trial program allowed the BMW Group to become the world's first major car manufacturer to deploy a fleet of more than 500 all-electric vehicles for private use. The Mini E was unveiled at the 2008 Los Angeles Auto Show. BMW is using its Mini brand to test the market with its electric powertrain technology but the vehicle was also developed in order to meet new California regulations that require carmakers to offer zero emission vehicles. The Mini factory located in Oxford, England, supplies vehicle gliders (cars without powertrains) to a team located in Munich, Germany, which then adds the electric running gear.